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Writing Tips For Economics Research Papers - Harvard University Writing Tips For Economics Research Papers - Harvard University
Writing Tips For Economics Research Papers Plamen Nikolov, Harvard University y June 10, 2013 1 General Tips about Writing Style When I read your term papers, I look for your ability to motivate your question using economic

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When you want your readers to focus on the doer of an action, you can make the doer the subject of the sentence and use the active form of the verb. A researcher must be proficient in understanding how to apply multiple methods to investigating a research problem as well as be proficient in optimizing how to design a study that coherently melds them together. The focus is on gaining insights and familiarity for later investigation or undertaken when research problems are in a preliminary stage of investigation.

Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena and to describe what exists with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. You have accurately and thoroughly informed the reader what has already been published about this problem or others related to it and noted important gaps in the research. Like specialist languages adopted in other professions, such as, law or medicine, academic writing is designed to convey agreed meaning about complex ideas or concepts for a group of scholarly experts.

The adverb sic informs the reader that the errors are not yours. Often used in the medical sciences, but also found in the applied social sciences, a cohort study generally refers to a study conducted over a period of time involving members of a population which the subject or representative member comes from, and who are united by some commonality or similarity. Empirical association -- a valid conclusion is based on finding an association between the independent variable and the dependent variable.

Results are static and time bound and, therefore, give no indication of a sequence of events or reveal historical or temporal contexts. Because the research design can be very complex, reporting the findings requires a well-organized narrative, clear writing style, and precise word choice. When writing, avoid problems associated with opaque writing by keeping in mind the following.

In cases where a comparative analysis of two cohorts is made e. Action research is much harder to write up because it is less likely that you can use a standard format to report your findings effectively i. Is useful in clarifying what policy or programmatic actions can be justified on the basis of analyzing research results from multiple studies.

The use of bulleted items or lists should be used only if the narrative dictates a need for clarity. Effective academic writing begins with solid planning, so manage your time carefully. Longitudinal data facilitate the analysis of the duration of a particular phenomenon. For example, with longitudinal surveys, the same group of people is interviewed at regular intervals, enabling researchers to track changes over time and to relate them to variables that might explain why the changes occur. Historical sources can be used over and over to study different research problems or to replicate a previous study.


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Writing an abstract for a research paper Harvard

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Writing an abstract for a research paper Harvard Due to the lack of control over external variables, historical research is very weak with regard to the demands of internal validity, Causal case study methods foundations and guidelines for comparing. While longitudinal studies involve taking multiple measures over an extended period of time, cross-sectional research is focused on finding relationships between variables at one moment in time. Produces more complete knowledge and understanding of the research problem that can be used to increase the generalizability of findings applied to theory or practice. However, even though two variables might be causally related, it can sometimes be difficult to determine which variable comes first and, therefore, to establish which variable is the actual cause and which is the  actual effect. Intense exposure to the study of a case may bias a researchers interpretation of the findings. Before beginning your paper, True experiments, whilst giving analyzable data. Difficult to account for and interpret variation from one sample to another over time, particularly when using qualitative methods of data collection. Observational research is useful for discovering what variables may be important before applying other methods like experiments.
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    Avoid directives that demand the reader to do this or do that. By doing so, you  help eliminate the possibility of the reader misinterpreting the design and purpose of your study. Awareness of the words you use is important because words that have almost the same denotation dictionary definition can have very different connotations implied meanings. This type of research design draws a conclusion by comparing subjects against a control group, in cases where the researcher has no control over the experiment. Also included is a collection of case studies of social research projects that can be used to help you better understand abstract or complex methodological concepts.

    Produces more complete knowledge and understanding of the research problem that can be used to increase the generalizability of findings applied to theory or practice. Approach excels at bringing us to an understanding of a complex issue through detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships. This provides opportunities for continuous improvement of sampling and methods of analysis. Experimental designs can be costly if special equipment or facilities are needed. Consider inserting the term sic in brackets after the quoted word or phrase to indicate that the quotation has been transcribed exactly as found in the original source, but the source has grammar, spelling, or other errors.

    Causal effect (nomothetic perspective) occurs when variation in one phenomenon, an independent variable, leads to or results, on average, in variation in another phenomenon, the dependent variable. If the limitations are understood, they can be a useful tool in developing a more focused study. There should be narrative links between sentences and paragraphs so that the reader is able to follow your argument. Meta-analysis is an analytical methodology designed to systematically evaluate and summarize the results from a number of individual studies, thereby, increasing the overall sample size and the ability of the researcher to study effects of interest. Each of these style manuals provide rules on how to write out numbers, references, citations, footnotes, and lists. Exploratory research is often used to generate formal hypotheses and develop more precise research problems. In so doing, it allows researchers to answer the question, what causes something to occur? Permits the researcher to identify cause and effect relationships between variables and to distinguish placebo effects from treatment effects. In cases where a comparative analysis of two cohorts is made e. Think of your writing this way one of the most important attributes of a good teacher is the ability to explain complexity in a way that is understandable and relatable to the topic being presented. Citing sources in the body of your paper and providing a list of references as either footnotes or endnotes is a very important aspect of academic writing.

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    Due to multiple forms of data being collected and analyzed, this design requires extensive time and resources to carry out the multiple steps involved in data gathering and interpretation. Provides a method for overcoming small sample sizes in individual studies that previously may have had little relationship to each other. Finally, understand that semi-colons represent a pause that is longer than a comma, but shorter than a period in a sentence. For example, the idea of being rational may hold the same general meaning in both political science and psychology, but its to understanding and explaining phenomena within the research domain of a each discipline may have subtle differences based upon how scholars in that discipline apply the concept to the theories and practice of their work Buy now Writing an abstract for a research paper Harvard

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    Nonspuriousness -- a relationship between two variables that is not due to variation in a third variable. Often in academic writing, scholars dont want to focus on who is doing an action, but on who is receiving or experiencing the consequences of that action. Avoid directives that demand the reader to do this or do that. In open cohort studies, researchers can only calculate rate based data, such as, incidence rates and variants thereof. Design can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research.

    Longitudinal research designs describe patterns of change and help establish the direction and magnitude of causal relationships. The subject is being observed in a completely natural and unchanged natural environment Writing an abstract for a research paper Harvard Buy now

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    Design lacks rigorous standards applied to methods of data gathering and analysis because one of the areas for exploration could be to determine what method or methodologies could best fit the research problem. Any group that is knowingly studied is altered to some degree by the presence of the researcher, therefore, potentially skewing any data collected. Describing a research problem is an important means of contextualizing a study. For example, the idea of being rational may hold the same general meaning in both political science and psychology, but its to understanding and explaining phenomena within the research domain of a each discipline may have subtle differences based upon how scholars in that discipline apply the concept to the theories and practice of their work Buy Writing an abstract for a research paper Harvard at a discount

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    The artificial settings of experiments may alter the behaviors or responses of participants. Small violations in defining the criteria used for content analysis can lead to difficult to interpret andor meaningless findings. Not all relationships are casual! The possibility always exists that, by sheer coincidence, two unrelated events appear to be related e. However, nothing will undermine the validity of your study quicker than the inappropriate application of a term or concept. However, the content of your paper should focus on methodology, the analysis and interpretation of findings, and their implications as they apply to the research problem rather than background information and descriptions of tangential issues Buy Online Writing an abstract for a research paper Harvard

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    It is a useful design when not much is known about an issue or phenomenon. Overuse of complex or obscure words or writing complicated sentence constructions gives readers the impression that your paper is more about style than substance it leads the reader to question if you really know what you are talking about. Scholars rely on precise words and language to establish the narrative tone of their work and, therefore, punctuation marks are used very deliberately. Lack of information can severely limit the type of analyzes and conclusions that can be reached. Because cross-sectional designs generally use survey techniques to gather data, they are relatively inexpensive and take up little time to conduct Buy Writing an abstract for a research paper Harvard Online at a discount

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    May generate new knowledge new insights or uncover hidden insights, patterns, or relationships that a single methodological approach might not reveal. Yes, it is appropriate for you to use specialist language and a formal style of expression in academic writing, but it does not mean using big words just for the sake of doing so. Given this, the number of study participants remains constant (or can only decrease). It is harder to do than conducting conventional research because the researcher takes on responsibilities of advocating for change as well as for researching the topic. It must be cohesive and possess a logically organized flow of ideas this means that the various parts are connected to form a unified whole Writing an abstract for a research paper Harvard For Sale

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    It must be cohesive and possess a logically organized flow of ideas this means that the various parts are connected to form a unified whole. Can be used to generate new hypotheses or highlight research problems for future studies. In as noted by denyer and tranfield 2009, a systematic review is a specific methodology that identifies existing research about a well-defined topic of investigation, usually derived from a public policy or practice-based problem. Meta-analysis is an analytical methodology designed to systematically evaluate and summarize the results from a number of individual studies, thereby, increasing the overall sample size and the ability of the researcher to study effects of interest For Sale Writing an abstract for a research paper Harvard

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    By doing so, you  help eliminate the possibility of the reader misinterpreting the design and purpose of your study. Take the time to learn the major and minor points of good grammar. The case study research design is also useful for testing whether a specific theory and model actually applies to phenomena in the real world. Narrative and non-textual information can add meaning to numeric data, while numeric data can add precision to narrative and non-textual information. The quality of your evidence will determine the strength of your argument.

    Cross-section studies are capable of using data from a large number of subjects and, unlike observational studies, is not geographically bound Sale Writing an abstract for a research paper Harvard

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